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Özel Yenişehir Hastanesi


Cardiology is a branch dealing with heart and circulatory system diseases. Cardiology was a sub-branch of internal medicine previously, but now is a separate department. As with other research and / or applied sciences, the knowledge and new technologies developing through researches have led to great developments in the field of cardiology and the emergence of sub-disciplines. Cardiology has improved beyond the predictions in the last 30-40 years, and these developments continue to increase. Along with these developments, some sub-branches formed in cardiology are:

  • Interventional cardiology
  • Cardiac electrophysiology

Of course, the emergence of sub-branches and the studies of doctors and researchers specialized on them allows the development of new diagnostic and treatment methods.
Some of the most important health problems of today are among the diseases that cardiology science works to provide diagnosis and treatment. Some of these diseases are as follows:

  • Hypertension
  • Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (such as coronary artery disease)
  • Arrhythmia
  • Congenital heart diseases

Hypertension which is also of interest of the branches such as nephrology and endocrinology departments, cardiac insufficiency, heart valve diseases congenital or resulting from various causes and etc. are among the diseases that cardiology is engaged in for diagnosis and treatment.

Some of the diagnostic tools that cardiology uses are as follows:

  • Echocardiography
  • Electrocardiography (ECG) and related diagnostic methods:
  • Heart stress test (also known “effort test” or “ECG with effort)
  • Portable ECG device (also known as “Holter device)
  • Levels of heart enzymes in the blood
  • Coronary angiography

In cardiology department, inpatients are treated in the general ward and coronary intensive care units (CICU). The CICUs are the units where the patients whose condition may require emergency intervention and having danger of life (such as those having heart attack) are monitored. Heart rhythms, blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen levels of the patients who are admitted to the CICUs are monitored by a central monitor to which all patients are connected, and these monitors alert the staff in case of an abnormality in the detected values.

Patients whose general condition is improved and whose life threat disappear are taken to the general wards and monitored to continue their examination and treatment. Today, in line with the increasing needs, professional hospitals are established in the field of Cardiovascular Disease. Some of these types of hospitals in Turkey are Turkey High Specialization Hospital, Siyami Ersek and Koşu yolu Pulmonary Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases Hospitals.

  • Anatomy and physiology
  • Coronary circulation disorders
  • Cardiac-dependent sudden death and treatment
  • Myocardial diseases
  • Pericardial diseases
  • Heart valve diseases
  • Heart electrical system disorders
  • Heart inflammation and infections
  • Congenital heart diseases
  • Blood vessel diseases
  • Medical intervention procedures in coronary artery disease

Anatomy and physiology
Basic Anatomy (Structure of the Heart)

  • Epicardium
  • Pericardium
  • Myocardium
  • Papillary muscles
  • Endocardium
  • Coronary circulation (Blood support of the heart)
  • Heart valves

Circulatory system (Blood support of the body)

  • Cardiac output
  • Heart rate
  • Vascular resistance
  • Blood vessels

Pulmonary circulation (Blood Oxygenation)

  • Pulmonary artery
  • Pulmonary vein

Alert conduction in the heart (electrical system of the heart)

  • Electrical conduction system of the heart
  • Action potential
  • Ventricular action potential
  • Sinoatrial node
  • Atrioventricular node
  • His Bundle
  • Purkinje fiber

Basic heart physiology

  • Systole
  • Diastole
  • Cardiac sounds
  • Preload
  • Afterload
  • Kussmaul sign

Coronary circulation disorders

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Restenosis
  • Coronary heart disease (Ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease)
  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Angina
  • Myocardial infarction

Cardiac-dependent sudden death and treatment

  • Cardiac arrest
  • Treatment of sudden cardiac death (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)

Myocardial diseases

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Ventricular hypertrophy
  • Primary tumors of the heart

Pericardial diseases

  • Pericarditis
  • Pericardial tamponade
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Heart valve diseases
  • Aortic valve diseases
  • Mitral valve diseases
  • Pulmonary valve diseases
  • Tricuspid valve diseases

Heart electrical system disorders

  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Bigeminy
  • Premature ventricular contraction
  • Ventriculer tachycardia
  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • Sick sinus syndrome
  • Bundle branch blocks
  • Heart blocks
  • Special disorders in Heart electrical system

Heart inflammation and infections

  • Endocarditis
  • Myocarditis
  • Pericarditis

Congenital heart diseases

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
  • Bicuspidaortic valve (BAV)
  • Fallottetralogy (FT)
  • Transposition of great vessels  (TGV)

Blood vessel diseases

  • Vasculitis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aneurysm
  • Varicosity (varicose veins)
  • Economic class syndrome
  • Coarctation of aorta
  • Aortic dissection
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Carotid artery dissection

Medical intervention procedures in coronary artery disease

  • Atherectomy
  • Angioplasty (angio) (PTCA)
  • Stenting
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery
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